Wednesday, August 10, 2016

The Biggest Scam In The History Of Mankind - Who Owns The Federal Reserv...

Thursday, July 14, 2016

How To fuck Pakistani Political Use of Islam: Part 1

Fact 1: How to Silent a Pakistani who is weeping on Kashmiri issues on name of ISLAM:
By their China policy:
Pakistan uses ISLAM for their political benefits. Does Pakistani Islam goes to hell, when Chinese government fuck Uyghur Muslims? Pakistan is only nation who works with China, helping them to kill Uyghur Muslims. Pakistani should stop their government from begging in front of China because Chinese Yuan is soaked in the blood of Uyghur Muslims.  
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eCPDOsmFj9E Pakistan to kick Uyghur Muslim for China-master https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZGa-tbTDkQ (Ramadan and Muslims Under Attack 
From Chinese Government) Chinese mobs attack Uyghur Muslim (East Turkistan) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msdcROcGNVI) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5IwwnP5e78 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=im2l6AjCqL4 (Police shot dead 2 Uyghur men in the front of running camera) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HXnr08yNVs (China imposes restrictions on Muslim Uyghurs: ALIAZeera, they can n't grow beard) . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UjfyEle1h8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFtdaqQ45jU(China bans Muslims from fasting during Ramadan) http://www.firstpost.com/world/chinas-trying-to-suppress-information-about-a-massacre-that-killed-50-people-say-reports-2476276.html China's trying to suppress information about a massacre that killed 50 people, say reports https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5IwwnP5e78 China's Ruthless Crackdown On Its Muslim Population https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gm4uVWNAc0k The Uighurs versus the Chinese Government https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6EU0EQlmfDY China's Uighurs face fasting restrictions -- 10 Sept 2008 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCz6-kfycpc Xinjiang Repression – China https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQe7aWEYkUc East Turkistan & China (Inside Story - Al Jazeera English ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sqT8yOt0hBE Uighurs' struggle to retain cultural identity - 07 July 09 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXXQbGLpLXk China Bans Ramadan Fasting For Muslims https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OoQ7DTOhcu4 China's changing approach to reporting Xinjiang - 08 Jul 09 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHykkBlyk6U
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-PYC_lCfVQ Why Is China Cracking Down On Muslim Culture?

I challenge Pakistani idiots who talk about helping Kashmiris because they are Muslims then what about Uyghur Muslims. I say to all Pakistani, "Dum hai to awaj udtha Uyghur muslims ke liye, Dekh na phir teri muslim ISI kaise teri gaand mein danda kar degi."

Fact 2: Black Spetember: Pakistani General Zia Ul Haq  
Fact 3:Pakistani administration: A Standard Saudi Slave 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e1Ut_77Oa78 Arab brother ordered Pakistan to do not Report Mina Incident - Pakistani Media Crying
SAUDI ARAB GOVT IS ABOUT TO DEMOLISH PLACE OF BIRTH OF PROPHET MOHAMMAD(S.A.W):PAKISTAN




Thursday, June 30, 2016

Reflectivity Resources: a guide to reflectivity resources available on-line

Liquid Surface Spectrometers 
X-rays
Europe
European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
Surface and Interface Science Group
  • Surface Diffraction Beamline suitable for GIXD from liquids
  • Soft Condensed Matter Group
  • ID10A TROIKA I+III TROIKA I accommodates GIXD studies on liquid surfaces
  • ID10B TROIKA II suitable for both vertical and horizontal scattering planes
  • Materials Science Group
  • ID15A/B High-energy scattering beamline accommodates a reflectometer suitable for liquid surfaces and buried interfaces: reference1 reference 2
  • North America
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
  • Liquid Surface Spectrometer at X22-B, NSLS
  • Liquid Surface Spectrometer at X19-C, NSLS
  • Argonne National Laboratory: Liquid and Soft-Matter Surface Scattering Special Interest Group
  • Ames Laboratory horizontal diffractometer MUCAT, 6-ID-B, APS
  • Liquid Surface Spectrometer at CMC-XOR, 9-ID-B, APS
  • Liquid Surface Spectrometer at ChemMatCARS, 15-ID, APS
  • Neutron reflectometers
    Neutron Reflection and Neutron Reflectometers provides a list of instruments for neutron reflectometery, software available for data analysis, and some introductory guides to reflectometry. Compiled by Prof. Adrian Rennie.
    North America
    Canadian Neutron Beam Center
  • D3 Reflectometer


  • Los Alamos National Laboratory
    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center
    Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center
  • SPEAR (Surface Profile Analysis Reflectometer) -- horizontal surface reflectometer
  • Asterix: vertical surface reflectomter with polarization analysis


  • National Institute of Standards and Technology
    NIST Center for Neutron Research
  • AND/R (Advanced Neutron Diffractometer/Reflectomter) ** reference
  • NG1 Cold neutron reflectometer with polarized beam option
  • NG7 Cold neutron reflectometer - horizontal sample geometry


  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Spallation Neutron Source
  • Liquids (horizontal surface) Reflectometer
  • Magnetism (vertical surface) Reflectometer
  • Europe
    Institut Laue-Langevin
  • ADAM (Advanced Diffractometer for the Analysis of Materials)
  • D17 Reflectometer ** reference
  • EVA (EVAnescent wave diffractometer)
  • FIGARO (Fluid Interfaces Grazing Angles ReflectOmeter) more info Installation planned for January 2008, commissioning in March 2008
  • Laboratoire Leon Brillouin
  • Eros: Time of Flight Reflectometer
  • Prism (Polarised Reflectomter for the Investigation of Surface Magnetism)Two-Axis Polarised Reflectometer with Polarisation Analysis
  • Hahn-Meitner Institute
  • V14 reflectometer, Hahn-Meitner Institute, Berlin
  • Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) Munich
  • KWS 3This focussed, high-resolution SANS instrument will also be adaptable for (liquid surface) reflectometry
  • MARIA (MAgnetic Reflectometer with high Incident Angle
  • N-REX+Suitable for vertical or horizontal scattering planes, also works with an x-ray reflectomtery system, and capabilities for Spin-Echo Resolved Grazing Incidence Scattering (SERGIS).
  • REFSANS Reflectometer for the analysis of soft and fluid interfaces and surfaces
  • ISIS
  • CRISP and SURF
  • Australia
    Bragg Institute
  • PLATYPUS
  • Reflectivity practitioners
  • Mathias Losche and Biological Physics Group, Supramolecular Structures Lab, Canegie Mellon University
  • Peter Pershan's (X-Ray) Group Harvard University
  • Tim Salditt and Juergen Thieme's Group at the Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, University of Goettingen
  • R. K. Thomas and Group, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Oxford
  • Tools for computing and analyzing reflectivity
  • Reflective X-ray Optics page for David Windt's IMD tool (runs on IDL)
  • NCNR Reflectometry software from the NIST Center for Neutron Research

  • Parratt32 or the Reflectivity Tool software from the Hahn-Meitner-Institut
  • Motofit software for fitting x-ray and neutron reflectivity data developed at ANSTO, runs on Igor
  • Open source MATLAB code for profile structure reconstruction from x-ray or neutron reflectivity as described in "Iterative reconstruction of a refractive-index profile from x-ray or neutron reflectivity measurements," Thorsten Hohage, Klaus Giewekemeyer, Tim Salditt, Phys. Rev. E 77:051604 (2008)
  • Meetings
  • NSLS-II and NSLS Light Sources Directorate Planning Workshops at Brookhaven National Lab, various dates from 2008.01.10-2008.02.12
  • NSLS-II Liquid Interface Scattering: Report from the July 2007 workshop breakout session E. DiMasi, M. Fukuto, B. Ocko and M. Schlossman
  • Workshop on Scientific Opportunities in Soft Matter and Biophysics at NSLS-II: Summary September 5-6, 2003, Student Activity Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY
  • Other tools
  • Datasqueeze software by Paul Heiney allows visualization and analysis of 2-D data. Mostly intended for SAXS, can also be useful for GID data.
  • Computing for Science and the Computation Lab at Institut Laue-Langevin offers software for data analysis and education
  • Software tools compiled by the Institut Laue-Langevin
  • Tools for IGOR users includes packages for analyzing reflectivity data and SANS data
  • World Directory of SANS Instruments
  • neutron@aps.anl.gov Listserve for folks interested in neutron scattering
  • Reference materials
  • X-ray Data Booklet from the Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (The little orange book!)
  • X-ray Interactions with Matter: optical properties of materials from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab
  • P
  • "The Application of the Specular Reflection of Neutrons to the Study of Surfaces and Interfaces," J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2 1369-1412 (1990).
  • "Principles and applications of grazing incidence X-ray and neutron scattering from ordered molecular monolayers at the air-water interface," Jens Als-Nielsen, Didier Jacquemain, Kristian Kjaer, Franck Leveiller, Meir Lahav and Leslie Leiserowitz Physics Reports 246(5) 251-313 (1994)
  • Thursday, March 10, 2016

    In Response to crackpots who believe in demons, angel,creation myths and deny Evolution




    I do not  have problems with religion, but I do have problems with ignorant persons who think unscientifically and deny scientific facts . If these persons wants to live in medieval times, then they should go to jungle. A illiterate caveman in a  jungle can be tolerated, atleast he never ruins another persons life with his ignorance.
    There are some good rational muslim in our society. They should stand against these mullas and try to establish that religion should not have precedence over scientific facts.
    Muslim should understand that A.P.J Abdul Kalam is a real hero.
    I am sorry for any errors related to English.
    Searched Google with “Qurans translation English” on 3:30 PM on 22/10/2015. This translation has been taken from http://www.noblequran.com/translation/.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xo232kyTsO0 The Real Meaning of E=mc²
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YycAzdtUIko Are Space and Time An Illusion?
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msVuCEs8Ydo  The Speed of Light is NOT About Light
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AwwIFcdUFrE What Happens At The Edge Of The Universe?
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vNaEBbFbvcY Do Events Inside Black Holes Happen?
    Is Gravity An Illusion? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NblR01hHK6U

    Interpretation of the Meanings of
    The Noble Quran: Published by Dar-us-Salam Publications
    NISCS = No Identifiable Scientific Content in this statement

    Surah Al-Fatihah:
    1. In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.  
    NISCS
    First of all Allah = God. These word have same meaning. I will use God in place of Allah Interchangeably. As english translation of Allah is God for me.
    2. All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of   the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).  
    NISCS
    As far as present scientific knowledge is concern, the existence of jinns is highly improbable.
    Archeological evidence found in Northwestern Arabia seems to indicate the worship of jinn, or at least their tributary status, hundreds of years before Islam: an Aramaic inscription from Beth Fasi'el near Palmyra pays tribute to the "ginnaye", the "good and rewarding gods",and it has been argued that the term is related to the Arabic jinn. Numerous mentions of jinn in the Quran and testimony of both pre-Islamic and Islamic literature indicate that the belief in spirits was prominent in pre-Islamic Bedouin religion. However, there is evidence that the word jinn is derived from Aramaic, where it was used by Christians to designate pagan gods reduced to the status of demons, and was introduced into Arabic folklore only late in the pre-Islamic era. Julius Wellhausen has observed that such spirits were thought to inhabit desolate, dingy and dark places and that they were feared. One had to protect oneself from them, but they were not the objects of a true cult.
    In the Guanche mythology:
    In Guanche mythology from Tenerife in the Canary Islands, there existed the belief in beings that are similar to genies, such as the maxios or dioses paredros ('attendant gods', domestic and nature spirits) and tibicenas (evil genies), as well as the demon Guayota(aboriginal god of evil) that, like the Arabic Iblīs, is sometimes identified with a genie.The Guanches were of Berber origin in North Africa.
    Christian sources
    Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural jann (الجان al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated into English as "familiar spirit" (אוב , Strong #0178) in several places (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9, 1 Chronicles 10:13).
     Taken from Wiki at 11:09 AM,15/3/2016
     
      
    3. The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.  
    NISCS
    4. The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)  
    NISCS
    Day of Recompense: This concept may be copied/inspired from Jewish or Christian Bible. It is a Construct of Medieval mind with no scientific evidence.
    The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, or The Day of the Lord Hebrew "Yohm Ha Din" or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Din is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
    In Christian theology, it is the final and eternal judgment by God of the people in every nation resulting in the glorification of some and the punishment of others. The concept is found in all the Canonical gospels, particularly the Gospel of MatthewChristian Futurists believe it will take place after the Resurrection of the Dead and the Second Coming of Christ while Full Preterists believe it has already occurred. The Last Judgment has  inspired numerous artistic depictions. Taken from Wiki at 11:09 AM,15/3/2016.
    5. You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).  
    NISCS
    6. Guide us to the Straight Way. 
    NISCS
    7. The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians). 
    NISCS
    These lines show the intolerance of translator towards other rligion. These line have much softer tone in few indian translations.Arabic translation are filled with intolerance.
    Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
    1. Alif-Lam-Mim. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'an and none but Allah (Alone) knows their meanings].
    NISCS
     2. This is the Book (the Qur'an), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)].
    NISCS
    If Allah = God is created everything than logic dictates that he should considered solely responsble to good and bad things,events etc.
    3. Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them [i.e. give Zakat ,spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allah's Cause - Jihad, etc.].
    NISCS

    4. And who believe in (the Qur'an and the Sunnah) which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) and in [the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.] which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and Hell, etc.)
    NISCS
    As far as I know, There is no solid historical proof that Quran was written by Muhammad.
    This claim of revelation is just like all other religions that their holy book is revealed by their own version of Gods.
    God in Quran is very outdated technically, truly belongs to 15th century. If he is so powerful then why reveal it to some man in desert.  Why not show some “MIRACLE”?
    Something like rain of printed copies of Quran from clear sky published by Haven book publishing company. At least in Haven, they can avoid typo errors which are bound to happen on earth. 
    This will save the energy and time of many so called
    "Islamic Preachers" who have just one aim, i.e. Conversion.We need updated version of God with good scientific knowledge, as there are many scientific flaws in Quran. 
    5. They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.
    NISCS
    6. Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.
    NISCS
    "If they will not believe", then why mullas are worried about conversion. 
    7. Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allah's Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.
    NISCS
    It is allahs' fault that "they will not believe" because he has already set seal on their hearts. How can you blame a lame person for not winning in a race, If it is you who made him lame.   
    8. And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day" while in fact they believe not.
    NISCS
    Let God (if he exists) decide who believes in him and who does not.No human can decide who is loyal to God and who is not.Because definition of God changes according to cultures.A narrow minded person will always thinks that his definition of God is correct.
    9. They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!
    My view point: (I am not a expert on human sociology, Psychology)
    From this sentence we can clearly see the mindset of writer, who thinks he is correct and some people do not take him seriously. Any sociology, Psychology expert will comment it on in much better way.
    10. In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies.
    Open to sociology, Psychology experts for comments.
    11. And when it is said to them: "Make not mischief   on the earth," they say: "We are only peacemakers."
    Open to sociology, Psychology expert for comments.
    12. Verily! They are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not.
    Open to sociology, Psychology expert for comments.
    My view point: (I am not a expert on human sociology, Psychology)
    In my view these lines historically related to writer’s view points about the elements in his society who did created problems for him openly or in disguised form, But it is not God’s comments
    13. And when it is said to them (hypocrites): "Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad Peace be upon him , Al-Ansar and Al-Muhajirun) have believed," they say: "Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" Verily, they are the fools, but they know not.
    Open to sociology, Psychology expert for comments.
    My view point: (I am not a expert on human sociology, Psychology)
    Again nothing like comment of reasonable man, It is a comment of normal person (writer) whose idea is not taken seriously by his society. So he consoles himself by saying people around me are fools. We are correct from our own point of view.
    14. And when they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe," but when they are alone with their Shayatin (devils - polytheists, hypocrites, etc.), they say: "Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking."
    Open to sociology, Psychology expert for comments.
    My view point: (I am not a expert on human sociology, Psychology)
    This an assumption of writer what people thinks of him and his theories. This statement shows his suspicious behavior towards people for whom he thinks they are not taking him seriously.
    NISCS
    15. Allah mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doings to wander blindly.
    What kind of God is this? Rather than mocking wrong doers and doing some irrational behavior of secrecy. He should come in front of human beings openly and explain everything. It would be much better rather than secretly sending an imaginary angel to some man in a desert whose academic credentials and ability to understand complex matters are in serious doubt. (Many Muslim scholars says that writer of Quran is illiterate.)
    First he causes suspicion in people’s mind and then sends them hell for the suspicion which is created by him (God).
    16. These are they who have purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided.
    Why the hell !writer of Quran is so worried about others !!
    17. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see.
    Again these lines clearly say It is writer of Quran who is a normal human being, writes what he thinks God is supposedly done to nonbelievers.
    18. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the Right Path).
    Again, Why the hell! Writer of Quran is so worried about others!!
    19. Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allah will gather them all together).
    Now starts the preface of massacre of nonbelievers. This has been proved especially wrong by historical evidences. Only evidence in favor of this statement may be Israel. There may be hundred other examples against to this.
    20. The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allah willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allah has power over all things.
    If God has power of all things then he should be held accountable for suffering of Human race and animals.
    21. O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2).
    NISCS
    22. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped).
    May be copied/inspired by either from Torah or Bible. NISCS
    23. And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'an) to Our slave (Muhammad Peace be upon him), then produce a Surah (chapter)   of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful.
    NISCS
    There are many scientific papers which are better available than any religious book.  Our understanding of nature has unlocked many mysteries.
    24. But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.
    There is no physical Hell present anywhere in known universe. Concept of Hell is an imagination of men in midlevel centuries.
    25. And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they   will say: "This is what we were provided with before," and they will be given things in resemblance (i.e. in the same form but different in taste) and they shall have therein Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates or wives), (having no menses, stools, urine, etc.) and they will abide therein forever.
    NISCS
    I has Question:  
    1. What kind of God is this, who bribe people with sex after death in exchange for his worship? 

    What kind of morality is this? In my point of view, If a person believe in God, then he should love God without wanting anything in return. 
    Why you need haven, if you love your God?
    True devotion seeks nothing in return.


    Friday, March 4, 2016

    University of Cambridge: The interactive Ellingham diagram

    Thermodynamics:
    The interactive Ellingham diagram
    Here we shall go through the basic thermodynamics that lies behind use of the Ellingham diagram. First, we will establish the link between the thermodynamics of a reaction and its chemistry.
    The Gibbs free energy, G, of a system can be described as the energy in the system available to do work. It is one of the most useful state functions in thermodynamics as it considers only variables contained within the system, at constant temperature and pressure.
    It is defined as:
    equation        (1)
    Here, T is the temperature of the system and is the entropy, or disorder, of the system. H is the enthalpy of the system, defined as;
    equation       (2)
    Where U is the internal energy, p is the pressure and v is the volume.
    To see how the free energy changes when the system is changed by a small amount, we can differentiate the above functions:
    equation       (3)

    and;

    equation       (4)
    From the first law,
    equation       (5)
    and from the second law,
    equation,        (6)
    we see that,
    equation       (7)
    since work, equation.
    The above equation shows that if the temperature and pressure are kept constant, we see that the free energy does not change. This means that the Gibbs free energy of a system is unique at each temperature and pressure.
    At a constant temperature dT = 0 and so
    equation       (8)
    We can find G for the system by integration. To do this we need the system’s equation of state, to give a relationship between v and p.
    We will consider an ideal gas. For one mole of an ideal gas the equation of state is;
    equation,       (9)
    so (8) becomes
    equation.        (10)
    Integrating:
    equation       (11)
    This we can express as
    equation       (12)
    We define G° to be the standard free energy at the standard pressure, p°. These standard values are nothing more than lower integration constants, but using them is very useful, as we shall see. They are a consequence of the fact that one can only describe energy changes absolutely – there is no absolute energy scale, so the energy value we give to a system is arbitrary. 
    Chemical Reactions:
    We will now see why studying the free energy of a system is useful in determining its behaviour.
    The free energy change, ΔG, of a chemical reaction is the difference in free energy between the products of the reaction and the reactants. If the free energy of the products is less than the free energy of the reactants there will be a driving force for the reaction to occur.
    For the reaction
    equation,
    the free energy change,
    equation                (13)
    equation
        (14)
    if the standard states equation. We see that the free energy change of a reaction is determined by the relative quantities of reactants and products.
    The Equilibrium Constant:
    A chemical reaction will occur if the total free energy of the products is less than the total free energy of the reactants. (ie. The free energy change for the reaction is negative.) If the system containing the reactants and products is closed (if there is no input of reactants, for example), the concentration of reactants will decrease and the concentration of products will increase as the reaction proceeds. This will alter the state of the system and therefore alter the free energy change for the reaction (see equation 14, above).
    The reaction will continue if the free energy change remains negative. Hence, the system proceeds down a free energy gradient with respect to composition and this gradient provides the driving force for the reaction to proceed. The system alters the quantities of reactants and products in response to the driving force until a minimum in free energy is reached and the gradient is zero. This is a point of equilibrium.
    At equilibrium the free energy change for the reaction is equal to zero:
    equation

    Therefore
    equation     (15)

    For the composition at equilibrium, the quotient is equal to KP - the equilibrium constant for the reaction at constant pressure. We see that the equilibrium composition of the system is defined by the standard free energy change, ΔG°. Equation 15 provides a link between the thermodynamics of a reaction and its chemistry. ΔG° for a reaction is hence a very useful value to know.
    Partial pressure of reacting gas:
    Using equations (15) we can see that the equilibrium constant is related to the partial pressures of reacting gases:
    equation
    for the reaction equation. (Remember that these pressures must be related to a standard state.)
    For a metal oxidation reaction ,
    2M (s) + O2 (g) = 2MO (s) ,
    the equilibrium constant has the form
    equation.
    We can therefore find the equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen at a particular temperature from the value of ΔG°:
    equation.
    The equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen is the pressure at which the driving force for the reaction is zero. From equation 14 we see that if the partial pressure of oxygen is greater than this value, the free energy change for the reaction is negative and there is a driving force for the reaction to take place. Metal will be oxidised, and the partial pressure of oxygen will drop until it reaches equilibrium. This is effect described by Le Chatelier’s principle.
    If the partial pressure of oxygen is below the equilibrium value, oxidation is avoided. (In fact, the metal oxide will disassociate to form metal plus oxygen gas-this is because there is a driving force for the reaction to proceed backward. For this reason the equilibrium partial pressure is often known as the dissociation pressure.)