Saturday, October 8, 2016

Killings and Rape of Minorities in Pakistan: Christians,Hindu women

Massive killings of Christians in Pakistan: Part -5, ARMY of Pakistan, ISI is giving silent support to these incidents, Because in all incidents a commission is formed but culprit are released in courts in lack of proof nearly every time. One minister of Pakistan has been killed by his own security guard and Lawyers in Pakistan are not fighting the case because that minister was killed rightly in their point of view. (The struggle of Pakistan's Christians)
(Christian couple 'burned to death by Pakistani mob had legs broken to stop them fleeing and wife was wrapped in cotton so she'd burn faster') (Christian couple 'burned to death by Pakistani mob had legs broken to stop them fleeing and wife was wrapped in cotton so she'd burn faster') (The Situation of Christians in Pakistan) (Pakistani Christians Burned Alive Were Attacked by 1,200 People: Kin) (Christian Persecution in Pakistan)  (Situation of Christians in Pakistan) (Christians in Pakistan are suffering relentless persecution) (Price of being Christian in Pakistan) (Christians massacre 'Unspeakable evil' in Pakistan) (Christians in Pakistan: Persecuted yet steadfast in the faith)

RAPEs of Hindu women in Pakistan: Part -6: (Plight of Hindus in Pakistan: Why is the world silent over this discrimination?) (Before blaming Indian Extremist you forgot Hindus has been burnt alive in Pakistan)  (Pakistani Hindu : Exclusively on India News) (The Life of Hindus in Pakistan) (Pakistani Hindus: Tales from across the border) (Plight of Hindus in pakistan) (This is what happens to Hindu Girls in Pakistan !!) (How Hindus in Pakistan Reduced From 20% to 2%?) (Where should a Pakistani Hindu go?) (hindu community in pakistan,life of hindus in islam dominated pakistan)  (Hindu Girls ABDUCTED RAPED AND CONVERTED IN PAKISTAN (Rinkal and Lata)  (Attack on Pakistani Hindus on Blasphemy Charges) (Rape and forcible conversion of Sikh and Hindu Women 1947) (Little Hindus girls being raped in Pakistan) (Our Pakistani Hindus (The best documentry reports) life of hindus in pakistan) (Islamic religious cleansing and rape of Hindu women in Pakistan) (Forced Conversion of Hindu Girls in Pakistan: ISLAM spread on Sword)  (rinkle kumari pakistan true story of hindu girl) (Hindu girl gang raped in Madarsa and forced to convert to Islam) (Pakistani Hindus & Sikhs worng to india piz see evey pakistani) (hindu community ln pakistan leaving bcz of forced conversions) (This is what happens to Hindu Girls in Pakistan !!)  (Untold Plight of Pakistani Hindus)  (pakistani hindus want to parmanent citizenship of india) (Hatred for Hindus)

Descendants of Alexander the Great's Army in Pakistan Pressured to Convert to Islam

Descendants of Alexander the Great's Army in Pakistan Pressured to Convert to Islam [PHOTOS]:
Conversions threaten Pakistan's "Macedonian" tribe:
Security for Kalash tribe after Taliban threat:
Taliban threat closes in on isolated Kalash tribe:
'Earthquake was Allah's wrath for Kalash community's immoral ways': Who Are Pakistan's Descendants Of Alexander The Great?

Teaching Hatred: A Glimpse into Pakistan’s Education System

During 1970s, as Pakistanis were pondering over their country’s future direction, Brigadier SK Malik, an influential figure in Pakistan Army, wrote a tome titled “The Koranic Concept of War” which was published in 1978. Its foreword was written by none other than Pakistan’s future and perhaps most influential dictator, General Zia-ul-Haq. A keen student of war, Malik argued that in order to keep Pakistan intact and take revenge against India, Pakistan must immerse itself in the philosophy of jihad against infidel Hindus and Jews. Jihadi terror, in his opinion was not a means to an end, but an end in itself. In Malik’s estimation, jihad would soften and paralyze the Indian giant, leading to its dismemberment by a thousand cuts. To rally Pakistani people in an eternal jihad against infidels thus became the primary doctrine for Pakistani establishment. This momentous turn of events turned the Pakistani government back to a medieval psychology, increasingly diverging from Attaturk’s secular Turkish model. ( (Stupidest law in the world - AJE investigates Pakistan's blasphemy law)
How History Books Differ in India and Pakistan

Hate Literature taught in Pakistani schools by Pakistani government recommended by Pakistani mullahs:
The Murder of History : A Critique of History Textbooks used in Pakistan By K K Aziz
This book is very important as it exposes Pakistan’s government Historical lies and point out how books in Pakistan are used to spread hate against Hindus and other religious minorities in a government recommend text. Above links will give only two chapters of books. We should use these Pakistani book to show rest of world how government of Pakistan corrupts mind of children even at age of 5-6.

Some Example from Book: The Murder of History: A Critique of History Textbooks used in Pakistan By K K Aziz

Bharat is the country of Non-Muslims (private, Lahore, English, class 3).
I don’t have exact figures available to me as I write this, But I am sure the no. of muslims in India is larger than the total population of Pakistan; which makes India bigger “Muslim Country” than Pakistan. I don’t understand logic or necessity of making this statement, except to convince class 3 students that India is an enemy state.

Our Ancestors arrived from Arabian Peninsula:
This claim has been made by the Ghairat Brigade since long. They have tried to downplay the linkages that we have with our subcontinental ancestors and tried via popular media and textbooks to somehow prove that our ancestors were not people living in the Subcontinent for thousands of years rather they came from the Arabian Peninsula.
A look at the genealogies of two of our founding fathers i.e Jinnah and Iqbal tells us that Mr. Jinnah belonged to a Sindhi family that had migrated to Gujarat.(Akbar S Ahmad, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity; Routledge, 1997; Chapter 1,page 1 ) while Iqbal belonged to a Kashmiri Sheikh family. Also, there was a considerable population consisting of Jatts and Gujjars before Islam came to our part of the world. Most of us are descendents of those early converts. The people most likely to have come down from Arabia are the Syeds who claim to be direct descendents from the Prophet (PBUH). Interestingly, in a research conduted by University College London, Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from the Indian subcontinent show evidence of elevated Arab ancestry but not of a recent common patrilineal origin For more on the castes of our country.
ARAB, Turk Invaders bring ISLAM in India.
Islam first came to the western coast of India with Arab traders (not by Turk, Arab invaders as pakistani schools teach) as early as the 7th century AD to coastal Malabar and the Konkan-Gujarat. Cheraman Juma Masjid in Kerala is thought to be the first mosque in India, built in 629 AD by Malik lbn Dinar (land is given by a Hindu King). Malik Deenar  (died 648 CE) is the first follower of the Islamic prophet, Muhammed, to come to India in order to propagate Islam in the Indian Subcontinent.
Cheraman Perumal  is the royal title used by the rulers of the Chera dynasty in southern India. The title has sometimes mistakenly been taken to refer exclusively to some kings of the dynasty, particularly Rama Varma. Kulashekhara and Rajashekhara Varman, but Hermann Gundert has observed that the title "Cheraman" is simply the name of the dynasty of Chera. According to legends, Cherman Perumal, travelled to Madina to meet the Prophet Muhammad (died in 632 AD) and embraced Islam. But he died on his way back and is now buried in Salalah, Oman.
A report by Pakistan’s National Commission for Justice and Peace (NCJP) Pakistan school textbooks riddled with religious 'hate material')
The Pakistan’s National Commission for Justice and Peace (NCJP) study cited several passages from textbooks that teach falsehoods about other religions, or criticise or encourage animosity towards them:

• The Punjab Textbook Board’s Class III (ages 7-8) book on Urdu teaches that Islam is “superior” to all other religions.

• The Sindh Textbook Board’s Class VII (ages 11-12) book on Islamic Studies teaches: “Most of the [other] religions of the world claim equality, but they never act on it.”

• The Punjab Board’s Islamic Studies textbook for Class VIII (ages 12-13) reads: “Honesty for non-Muslims is merely a business strategy, while for Muslims it is a matter of faith.”

• For Class VI (ages 10-11), the Punjab Board’s Islamic Studies book says: “For the person who is not in financial need, is not governed by a tyrant and still does not perform [the pilgrimage to Mecca], it does not make a difference whether he dies as a Christian or a Jew.”

• The Punjab Board’s Class VI book on Islamic Studies says: “Though being a student, you cannot practically participate in jihad, but you may provide financial support for jihad.”

• The Punjab Board Class V (ages 9-10) Social Studies book says: “Religion plays a very important role in promoting national harmony. If the entire population believes in one religion, then it encourages nationalism and promotes national harmony.

• “The better a Muslim we become, the better a citizen we prove to be,” says the Punjab Board’s Class IV (ages 8-9) book on Urdu.

Every textbook continues to use the Urdu word “Isai” (derived from “Isa”, the Arabic word for “Jesus” used in the Qur’an) for “Christian”. As World Watch Monitor has reported, the word now carries strong overtones – from colonial times – with the “unclean” demeaning occupations done by the lowest castes.

History is a subject of particular contention in the report. Pakistani textbooks refer to centuries of “Islamic rule” and “jihad” in the Indian subcontinent. However, Pakistani historian and author Dr. Mubarrak Ali told World Watch Monitor: “It is wrong to say ‘Islamic rule’ or ‘Hindu rule’. The Indian wars were political conflicts and not religious conflicts. The political conflict in the Indian subcontinent is seen as a religious conflict, which is why history is described in a binary opposition. We want to see history in black and white, while multiple facts decide one incident.”

Here are some of the other contentious or inflammatory passages cited in the report:

• The Pakistan Studies book from the Punjab Board for Class IX (ages 13-14) students says: “The free status of Islam and Muslims was hurt with the establishment of British rule. Muslims under non-Muslims remained enslaved and coerced.”

• The Sindh Class VIII book on Social Studies says: “The influence of Christian priests increased greatly [during British rule]. Christian priests were able, with the help of their government, to openly preach their religion.”

• The Class VII Baluchistan Textbook Board book on Urdu says: “The British … feared the Muslims, being the true inheritors of the rule of India, could become a danger for them anytime.

• “Another book shows that the accusations against [Mughal Emperor of India] Aurangzeb of bias towards Hindus are purely a fabrication of the narrow-minded Hindus and treacherous British,” says the Punjab Board’s Urdu textbook for “matriculates” (ages 15-16).

• The Class V book on Islamic Studies by the Punjab Board states: “The Muslims ruled the Indian subcontinent for about thousand years with magnificence, but they did not forcibly convert a single Hindu. If they had willed, then today there wouldn’t even be a trace of them in the subcontinent. But Muslims showed great tolerance and even raised Hindu to high positions.

• The Punjab Board’s Class VI History book reads: “Most of the population of Delhi consisted of Hindus who considered Muslims strangers. They … were always busy in thinking about getting free from the rule of Muslims. Hindu landlords used various excuses to not pay land revenue and even sometimes descended into revolt. The Hindus were so much encouraged by [Emperor] Akbar’s pro-Hindu policies that they started demolishing mosques and shrines and started building their temples in their place. Wherever Hindus were in majority, they brutalised Muslims.

• The History textbook for Class VIII students, published by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Textbook Board, reads: “Sikhs used to do many brutalities to Muslims and did not allow them religious freedom … The British did not trust Muslims and the policy of injustice and brutality hurt economic and educational conditions of Muslims. And the discriminatory attitude of Hindu landlords further made their condition worse. Under the influence of Hindus, they adopted several heresies.

• The Punjab Board’s History textbook for Class VII states: “In those days, Sikhs ruled the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Sikhs had made the life of Muslims terribly difficult. Syed Ahmed Shaheed decided to wage jihad against Sikhs.”

• The Punjab Board Social Studies book for Class VII says that Bangladesh became its own independent nation in 1971 – no longer East Pakistan – due to a conspiracy of “enemy countries of Islam”.

Teaching Hatred: A Glimpse into Pakistan’s Education System, 2012-2013:
Grade IV (Social Studies, Khyber Pakhtunkwa): “Muslims treated Hindus in [a] very good manner despite that Hindus used to main[tain] deep animosity against Muslims.
Grade V (Social Studies, Punjab): “The religious beliefs of the Muslims and Hindus are absolutely different. The Hindus worship many Idols. They have many Gods and Goddesses. The Muslims believe in one Allah who is Almighty and who is Creator of the universe. The Muslims worship Allah. In the Hindu religion the men are divided into different classes by their system of caste and creed, whereas in Islam all the Muslims are equal and are brotherly with one another. In Hindu religion the women are given a low status. Whereas Islam teaches to give due respect to the women.
Grade V (Islamic Studies, Sindh): “Hindus have tried all their means to harm Muslims of Indian Sub­continent and killed millions of Muslims. They were deprived of their assets and properties.
Grade VI (Social Studies, Punjab): “Before the Arab conquest the people were fed up with the teachings of Buddhists and Hindus...The foundation of [the] Hindu set up was based on injustice and cruelty. The system of Islam, which was based on justice, equality and brotherhood as described earlier,impressed a lot to the Hindu culture and set up.
Grade VI (Social Studies, Sindh): “The social equality and justice to all freed the cast ridden Hindu society and paved the way for spread of Islam, we know that the low caste Hindus suffered due to the low caste system, The Hindus belonging to lower casts were tortured, insulted and disgraced.[sic]
Grade IX ­- X (Pakistan Studies, Khyber Pakhtunkwa): “Hindu leadership has not only shown their religious hatred but also expressed their political hatred by opposing to celebrate their independence day on the same day. They proposed 15th August 1947, as their independence day because they never wanted to celebrate with Pakistan on the same day and this shows their psyche of narrow­mindedness.
Grade IX ­- X (Pakistan Studies, Khyber Pakhtunkwa): “Hindus were against the creation of Pakistan. Despite their utmost opposition, when Pakistan was created, they used all means to weaken and harm Pakistan. Hindus in the ‘East Pakistan’ started mobilizing their fellow citizens against the ‘West Pakistan.’ ”
(Here is what 70% of student population in Pakistan study)
(Religious Hate Material Fills Pakistani Kids' Textbooks)
Study: Public School Textbooks in Pakistan Teach Intolerance of Non-Muslims
A passage in an eighth grade Islamic Studies book published in 2015 as part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Curriculum describes jihad in a positive light.

Prophet (PBUH) said that ‘Jihad will continue till the end of times’. Jihad is going on in different parts of the world. Many Mujahidins of Islam are participating in Jihad for sake of Allah, for protection of their religion, to help their oppressed brothers, and to get freedom from tyranny,” it read. “As a student if you cannot practically participate in Jihad you can at least financially help in preparation of Jihad.

A passage from a tenth grade Punjab textbook, also published in 2015, states, “Because the Muslim religion, culture and social system are different from non-Muslims, it is impossible to cooperate with Hindus.

Another Punjab curriculum textbook for sixth grade Islamic studies reads, “Christians learned tolerance and kind heartedness from Muslims. The fair treatment and good governance of Muslims improved the living standard of the region. They started to live prosperous and peaceful lives under the patronage of Muslims.
Awaiting changes to a syllabus of hate
Pakistan where some school syllabus seems much dangerous than anything.
Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam
(Urdu Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 108)

The religion of the evil Hindus did not teach them good things — Hindus did not respect women
(Muasherati Ulum for Class IV, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 2005, p 81)

Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow, dark and dirty places, where they worship fake gods in idols. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. In our mosques, on the other hand, all Muslims can say their prayers together
(Muasherati Ulum for Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1996, p 109 ), Pakistan: Seeds of hate, 17 September 2012
Hindus can never be true friends of Muslims” is one of the many such lines from Pakistan Studies of grade seven.
Pakistani Government School Textbooks teaching Hate against Christians and Hindus; Jihad and Martyrdom to Children

For Justice and Peace, textbooks are full of intolerance and hatred towards non-Muslims
Kamran Chaudhry,-textbooks-are-full-of-intolerance-and-hatred-towards-non-Muslims-38179.html
on page 85 of a history book used in Peshawar, a centre of Taliban extremism, one can read that “The English took power from Muslims, so they considered Muslims as their true enemies. They closed all doors of development to Muslims. So Muslims had no choice but to fight the English . . . Christian pastors were forcefully converting locals to Christianity”.
The christians minorities in Pakistan: the problem in the education system

Friday, October 7, 2016

Wahhabism Islam rejects Shia, Sufi and Ahmadiyya muslim as non muslim

People in India love to be politically correct and sit in their houses. Now I think enough of this bullshit. Every religion has idiots and idiotic ideas, But it is important to rectify them so that society can move on.
Generally I don't post things like this, but I think I should post these videos. I used to think that Europe was Islamophobic. My study suggests that the culprit is House Of Saud (Current dictator family of Saudi Arab). They are misusing Islam to protect their dictatorship. It is the root cause of problem. How they are doing this??
Wahhabism Islam rejects Shia, Sufi and Ahmadiyya muslim as non muslim.
10 Minutes: From Wahhabism to Daesh (
Panorama British Schools Islamic Rules BBC Bretland
Wahhabism and ISIS: why US officials won’t discuss their links to Saudi Arabia
Syria UN Rep: Saudi Arabia Gets Rid of its Imprisoned Terrorists by Sending them to Kill Syrians
Germany Accuses Saudi Arabia of Funding Terrorism
How Saudi Arabia Financed Global Terror
Qatar Generously Funds Wahhabi Terrorists in Syria but Exploits World Cup Workers to Death
islamic schools in Britain teaching hate and segregation to young muslims.
My religious point of view:
I don't take religion very seriously But I do believe that There is a possibility of GOD
Hindus used to believe in lot of bullshit but they are rectifying themselves

Saudi Arab (Arab men flock to exploit Syrian refugee camps to rape girls and for Mutah marriages)
MECCA FOR THE RICH: ISLAM'S HOLIEST SITE 'TURNING INTO VEGAS'. Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia
Saudis say No to the Prophet Muhammad, Yes to Paris Hilton Alarm over Saudi plan to remove tomb of Prophet Muhammad 
The Middle East Eye (M.E.E.) is an online news portal covering events in Mid-West Asia. The M.E.E. web-site describes the organization as an independently funded on-line news organization founded in February 2014 which aims to be the primary portal of Middle East news. The sole director of M.E.E. Ltd is Jamal Bassasso who was a former director of planning and human resources at the Qatari-funded Al Jazeera.
Bulldozing the birthplace of Mohamed: Developers set to demolish building next to site of the Prophet's home to make way for imam's residence : 'Saudis mull destroying Prophet's tomb' : Demolition of Islam’s Historical Sites
Saudi Arab Govt is about to Demolish Place of Birth of Prophet Mohammad(S.A.W):Pakistan Prophet Muhammad’s 
Birthplace in Mecca Likely to be Destroyed to Make Royal Palace

Wahhabis in India,Kashmir: The Destruction

Wahhabis in Kashmir: The Destruction
The birth of the Jamiat Ahl-e-Hadith: The birth of the Jamiat Ahl-e-Hadith took place in India in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. As a first step they wielded their influence on the various Mosques which began preaching the Sharia law as mandated by the Wahabis. The next stop was Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh following which they began wielding influence heavily in Kerala. The Jamiat Ahl-e-Hadith was the umbrella body which oversaw the flow of Wahabi scholars into India. The same outfit is also making efforts to spread their ideology into Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and until last year Karantaka.
The Radicalization of South Asian Islam:
Saudi Money and the Spread of Wahhabism:
A new school of Islam from Saudi Arabia is transforming South Asia’s religious landscape. Wahhabism, a fundamental Sunni school of Islam originating in Saudi Arabia, entered South Asia in the late 1970s. With public and private Saudi funding, Wahhabism has steadily gained influence among Muslim communities throughout the region. As a result, the nature of South Asian Islam has significantly changed in the last three decades. The result has been an increase in Islamist violence in Pakistan, Indian Kashmir, and Bangladesh. While governments in South Asia have not initially made the connection between Saudi Arabian money and the radicalization of Islam in their own countries, it is now clear that Wahhabism’s spread is increasing fundamentalism in South Asia.
The Radicalization of South Asian Islam: Saudi Money and the Spread of Wahhabism:
The success of Saudi money in converting Muslim groups to Wahhabism has since been replicated in other parts of South Asia, including parts of India and Bangladesh. In the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, Saudi influence has led to 1.5 million people, from a population of 8 million, to affiliate with Wahhabi mosques.A Saudi-funded group, Jamiat Ahl-e-Hadith claims 16 percent of Kashmir’s population as its members and has built 700 mosques and 150 schools. Police in Jammu and Kashmir believe this is the result of a $35 billion plan approved by Saudi Arabia’s government in 2005 to build mosques and madrassas in South Asia. Additionally, Saudi Arabia distributed free religious literature and provided stipends to Wahhabi preachers.
In Bangladesh, individuals radicalized in Wahhabi-funded mosques have coalesced under the fundamentalist organization Hefazat-e-Islam, which was implicated in the January 2014 incident when its members took to the streets in violent protests and demanded the implementation of Islamic law in Bangladesh. In Jammu and Kashmir, the practice of visiting shrines has declined and the use of burkas among women has increased.There is a general fear that the influence of Wahhabism throughout South Asia will dilute moderate interpretations of Islam in South Asia.
The Radicalization of South Asian Islam: Saudi Money and the Spread of Wahhabism:
Tariq Mir, “Kashmir: The Rise of a Hard Faith,” Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, December 13, 2011,
Asit Jolly, “The Wahhabi Invasion,”India Today, December 23, 2011,
 Jolly, “The Wahhabi Invasion.”
Tariq Mir, “Purifying Kashmir,” Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, May 8, 2012,
Foreign funds for new mosques, madrassas in J&K, 12,February,2000Daily Excelsior
Government has obtained fresh evidence about the creation of a "special fund" for setting up new mosques and more madrassas in Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere in India till the end of 2002.
The "special fund", according to the evidence, has been created by five countries, namely, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. Intelligence inputs, now being examined by the Government of India, reveal that extremist Muslim fundamentalists in these countries have so far generated more than Rs 3,000 crores for the "special fund“.These planners, who also include some representatives from the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY), are reported to have identified areas for the new mosques in Jammu, Udhampur, Rajouri and Poonch districts. WAMY is a Saudi organisation. Three of its representatives were said to have spent four days in Jammu and Srinagar last year, when some Muslim priests and politicians were quietly contacted and consulted by them for the purpose.
Their unpublished visit incidentally took place at a time when two surrendered Kashmiri jehadis had informed a Government functionary in New Delhi about the "involvement" of as many as 15 Muslim politicians of J&K in the foreign-funded gameplan of more mosques and madrassas in the districts of Jammu, Udhampur, Rajouri and Poonch. Three of these politicians are senior members of the All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC), who, according to the surrendered jehadis, had swallowed several lakhs of rupees out of the huge sums of foreign financial contributions between 1994 and 1998.
Meanwhile, at a time when the controversy has been triggered over the future constitutional position of Jammu and Kashmir, a Pakistani diplomat, based in New Delhi, has been reported to have admired the role of two Hindu "intellectuals" based in Jammu. The diplomat’s admiration for the two "intellectuals" is, obviously, the product of the pro-Muslim stance adopted by them on the need for the maximum autonomy to Kashmir.
The story of the Pak diplomat’s "love" for the two Jammu-based "intellectuals“ was told by a leader of the All Party Hurriyat Conference after his recent meeting with him. The Delhi-based Pakistan chancery has been found by intelligence sleuths to have developed much interest in certain internal matters of the State, particularly New Delhi’s attitude towards the demand for the restoration of the pre-1953 constitutional position in Kashmir.
Wahhabis are taking over Indian mosques, spending crores to grow: IB
An IB report says some 25,000 preachers of the extreme Wahhabi form of Islam came to India last year as visitors, reports Vicky Nanjappa.
According to, they are supporting it to suit their purpose of creating their so called Muslim Ummah or Muslim brotherhood in the region. This brotherhood- when achieved- will be used for their political motives. This is the reason they helped create Pakistan out of India and this is the very reason they want to separate Kashmir from India. Millions of dollars are being spent for this purpose both in Pakistan and India.  Sapan Kapoor?

An undated document, which according to WikiLeaks, originated from the Embassy of Saudi Arabia in New Delhi, contains the list of Indian institutions and societies that have applied for financial assistance. The document suggests that the government of Saudi Arabia itself pledged donations to nine such institutions located across different states, including Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala and Maharashtra.  , June 29, 2015, 5:13 pm
WikiLeaks also released documents that showed that the Secretariat General of the Muslim World League (Mecca), a controversial organisation, had requested Saudi Arabia to encourage establishing Wahhabi centres in India.
Separatists Raise ISIS Flags In Kashmir, Use Children As Shields As They Pelt Stones At Security Forces!(Palestine Style )
Hours after the Jammu&Kashmir High Court stayed the hoisting of state flag alongside national flag protests erupted in the valley after the Friday prayers. But the protests took an ugly turn when the protesters raised Pakistan and ISIS flags in an effort to provoke the security forces.
(ISIS, Pakistan flags waved in Srinagar, police registers FIR)…/flags-of-isis-pakistan-hoisted-…/(…/after-pakistan-flags-separatist-sup…
(After Pakistani flags, separatists wave ISIS flags in Kashmir)…/pak-isis-flags-raised-in-kashmir…
(Pak, ISIS flags raised in Kashmir during protests over killing of separatist activist)…/articlesh…/44831687.cms
(ISIS flag in Kashmir valley worries Army)…/articlesh…/44857740.cms
(Protesters again display ISIS flags in Kashmir valley)…/isis-flags-in-kashmir-separat…/63
(ISIS flags in Kashmir: Separatists' new strategy?)…/protestors-displayed-isis…/53819/
(After Pakistani Flags, ISIS Flags Waved In Kashmir This Time)

Saudi Arabia realizes that the Shias in India are a threat to the dominance of the Sunni community. India houses a large number of Shias and this according to the Saudis gives Iran an upper hand in India. However for Saudi the Sunnis in India have not followed the violent Wahabi style of Islam and there are many seniors in the Muslim community who will not allow that to happen. The only way Saudi could instill a radical thinking in the minds of the Sunni Muslims in India was by the establishment of Wahabi centres. The Wahabis are an extremely orthodox set of Sunni Muslims. There are several Muslims in India who subscribe to the Wahabi view. As a first step, Saudi sent in several Wahabi preachers into India an Intelligence Bureau report states. The years 2011 to 2013 alone saw a record number of 25,000 Wahabis coming to India and conducting seminars in various parts of the country. With them they brought in Rs 1700 crore in several installments and used it to propogate the Wahabi style of Islam.
In another incident that occurred in Maharashtra, Wahhabi scholars bribed some members of the Mosque and attempted taking over the administration. While the Muslims in many states have opposed the Wahabis tooth and nail, success for the Saudi Arabia sponsored Wahabis was highest in Kerala. No doubt Kerala became a fertile ground for ISIS. Read more at:
The drive by Saudi to impose the Wahabi culture in India has not been entirely a success. The highest rate of success that they have witnessed is in Kerala. This is a lot to do with the fact that there is a large population of people who go to Saudi in search of employment. Many in Kerala have welcomed with open arms the Wahabi style of preaching and this has let the Saudi controlled lot take control over nearly 75 Mosques in the state. The newer Mosques that are coming up in Kerala are also constructed in the manner in which they done in Saudi Arabia. It was in Kerala that one got to see posters mourning the death of Osama Bin Laden and also a prayer for Ajmal Kasab after he was hanged. Intelligence Bureau officials tell One India that a large number of youth appear to be attracted to this radical style of Islam, but also add that there are some elders who are trying to oppose it. Read more at:
The Wahabi rule book in India:
Each time a Wahabi preacher comes to India, he comes in with a rule book. What they intend to do is ensure that the rule book is circulated in the Mosques. However when the administration of the Mosques have opposed this it has led to clashes. The rule book has a set of guidelines which need to be adhered to failing which the horrific Sharia law would be imposed. Here are a couple of guidelines that have been set as per the Wahabi rule book:
• Shrines shall be forbidden
• Every Muslim woman should wear purdah or be subject to severe punishment
• Men have to compulsorily grow beards
• Women should not be allowed to work. Exception can be made only if the family is in need.
• Men and women should not mingle together in public.
• No weeping loudly at funerals.
• Abide by the Shariat law; every offence committed shall be punishable under this law.
 • All men should wear trousers which are above their ankles.
• No laughing loudly or listening to music; no dancing or watching television.
Wahabi universities being set up: The Saudi sponsored Wahabis are aiming to set up their own education system in India as well. Out of the total Rs 1700 crore that has been earmarked for the cause, Rs 800 crore is being spent on setting up Universities in different parts of the country. One such university was seen in Andhra Pradesh as well. Over all they propose to set up 4 such universities which will only cater to Wahabi preachings. With the take over of the existing Mosques becoming extremely difficult, they have earmarked Rs 400 crore to set up 40 Mosques adhering only to Wahabi preachings in different parts of the country. A sum of Rs 300 has been been earmarked to set up Madrasas while the remaining Rs 200 crore has been set aside as miscellaneous costs which also would include bribes to paid off to Mosque authorities as was seen in Maharashtra.
In the last three-four years there has been a steady increase in Wahhabi preachers coming to India to conduct seminars. The official warned that “There is no doubt that Wahhabism is getting stronger in the country, especially in Kerala, mainly because of the radicalization of a large number of local youth who are going to Saudi Arabia in search of employment. Kerala has been showing signs of sharp radicalization. This was the only state where posters mourning the death of Osama Bin Laden had come up and a prayer for Ajmal Kasab was also held after he was hanged.”
Why?? Leftist government of Kerala was busy in stopping Indian values in Kerla.

The success of Saudi money in converting Muslim groups to Wahhabism has since been replicated in other parts of South Asia, including parts of India and Bangladesh. In the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, Saudi influence has led to 1.5 million people, from a population of 8 million, to affiliate with Wahhabi mosques.A Saudi-funded group, Jamiat Ahl-e-Hadith claims 16 percent of Kashmir’s population as its members and has built 700 mosques and 150 schools. Police in Jammu and Kashmir believe this is the result of a $35 billion plan approved by Saudi Arabia’s government in 2005 to build mosques and madrassas in South Asia. Additionally, Saudi Arabia distributed free religious literature and provided stipends to Wahhabi preachers.
In Bangladesh, individuals radicalized in Wahhabi-funded mosques have coalesced under the fundamentalist organization Hefazat-e-Islam, which was implicated in the January 2014 incident when its members took to the streets in violent protests and demanded the implementation of Islamic law in Bangladesh. In Jammu and Kashmir, the practice of visiting shrines has declined and the use of burkas among women has increased.There is a general fear that the influence of Wahhabism throughout South Asia will dilute moderate interpretations of Islam in South Asia.
The Radicalization of South Asian Islam: Saudi Money and the Spread of Wahhabism:
The Radicalization of South Asian Islam: Saudi Money and the Spread of Wahhabism:
Tariq Mir, “Kashmir: The Rise of a Hard Faith,” Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, December 13, 2011,
Asit Jolly, “The Wahhabi Invasion,”India Today, December 23, 2011,
 Jolly, “The Wahhabi Invasion.”
Tariq Mir, “Purifying Kashmir,” Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, May 8, 2012,
Foreign funds for new mosques, madrassas in J&K, 12,February,2000 Daily Excelsior
Government has obtained fresh evidence about the creation of a "special fund" for setting up new mosques and more madrassas in Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere in India till the end of 2002.
The "special fund", according to the evidence, has been created by five countries, namely, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. Intelligence inputs, now being examined by the Government of India, reveal that extremist Muslim fundamentalists in these countries have so far generated more than Rs 3,000 crores for the "special fund“.

Why Sunni muslims are killing Shia Muslims? Idiots are everywhere in every religion.
Pakistan's Shia genocide
Pakistan : Shia Muslims
Pakistan: Rampant Killings of Shia by Extremists
Time for Shias to leave Pakistan
“If this isn’t Shia genocide, what is?”
Hazara Shia genocide and the evils we don’t see
THE LAHORE LOG: Curbing the persecution of Shias
The Persecution of Shia Muslims in Saudi Arabia
Persecution of Shias in Pakistan
'Hell on Earth': Inside Quetta's Hazara community
Is There Any Hope for Pakistan's Shias?
Early Warning Signs of Shia Genocide in Pakistan  (Pakistan Shia-Sunni divide grown to total destruction level - Check this animosity)

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

List of quantum chemistry and solid-state physics software

Quantum chemistry computer programs are used in computational chemistry to implement the methods of quantum chemistry. Most include the Hartree–Fock (HF) and some post-Hartree–Fock methods. They may also include density functional theory (DFT), molecular mechanics or semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods. The programs include both open source and commercial software. Most of them are large, often containing several separate programs, and have been developed over many years.

The following table illustrates the capabilities of the most versatile software packages that show an entry in two or more columns of the table. is also very Importent.
Gaussian, Avogadro, Virtual Nano Lab,NWChem: Open Source High-Performance Computational Chemistry( and Quantum ATK is also very importent

Monday, September 26, 2016

The History of Hindu India, Part Two: 300-1000 ce

Softwares for Band structure calculation

Taken from ( :Resources: Tools:Nano HuB
Connecting Theory and Application of Optoelectronic Devices - See more at:
USPEX is a code for predicting the structure of crystals, surfaces and nanoparticles using a specifically developed evolutionary algorithm (also called USPEX). The efficient structure searching algorithm enables prediction of large and complex structures that possess the greatest stability at given conditions or desired physical properties. It can also simultaneously search for stable structures and compositions in multicomponent systems. Structure prediction is made particularly efficient by the use of special variation operators, preconditioning schemes, and structure fingerprint functions. Simulations using other, in general less efficient, methods (random sampling, particle swarm optimization) are also possible. For structure relaxations and energy evaluations, used as part of structure prediction algorithm, USPEX is interfaced with external codes (VASP, SIESTA, GULP, MD++). Calculations can be efficiently run in parallel on hundreds or thousands of CPUs.
(Licence Details: available for free for academic users. If you are interested in this package please contact Prof. Oganov - see also
Vanderbilt Ultra-Soft Pseudopotential
(Licence Details: GNU GPL Public Licence)
CASTEP is a quantum mechanics module used to simulate the properties of solids, interfaces, and surfaces for a wide range of materials classes including ceramics, semiconductors, and metals. It enables the user to perform first-principles quantum mechanics calculations to explore; properties of crystalline materials (semiconductors, ceramics, metals, minerals, zeolites etc); properties of surfaces, and surface reconstructions; chemistry of surfaces; electronic structure (band-structures and densities of states); optical properties of crystals; properties of point defects (e.g. vacancies, interstitials and substitutional impurities); extended defects (e.g. grain boundaries and dislocations); 3D form of charge density and wavefunctions of a system.
(Licence Details: An agreement in 1999 between Accelrys and UKCP meant that CASTEP became available free to UK universities)

CPMD Program
The CPMD code is a plane wave/pseudopotential implementation of Density Functional Theory, particularly designed for ab-initio molecular dynamics. The main characteristics are: works with norm conserving or ultrasoft pseudopotentials; LDA, LSD and the most popular gradient correction schemes; free energy density functional implementation; isolated systems and system with periodic boundary conditions; k-points; molecular and crystal symmetry; wavefunction optimization: direct minimization and diagonalization; geometry optimization: local optimization and simulated annealing; molecular dynamics: constant energy, constant temperature and constant pressure; path integral MD; response functions; excited states; many electronic properties.
(Licence Details: Non-profit organizations can download the code upon the acceptance of a licence agreement. For-profit organizations please contact spamblocked email)
VAMP/VASP is a package for performing ab-initio quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics (MD) using pseudopotentials and a plane wave basis set. The approach implemented in VAMP/VASP is based on a finite-temperature local-density approximation (with the free energy as variational quantity) and an exact evaluation of the instantaneous electronic ground state at each MD-step using efficient matrix diagonalization schemes and an efficient Pulay mixing. These techniques avoid all problems occurring in the original Car-Parrinello method which is based on the simultaneous integration of electronic and ionic equations of motion. The interaction between ions and electrons is described using ultrasoft Vanderbilt pseudopotentials (US-PP) or the projector augmented wave method (PAW). Both techniques allow a considerable reduction of the necessary number of plane-waves per atom for transition metals and first row elements. Forces and stress can be easily calculated with VAMP/VASP and used to relax atoms into their instantaneous groundstate.
(Licence Details: VAMP/VASP is not public domain - if you are interested in this package please contact Prof. Hafner - spamblocked email)
FHImd is a density-functional theory program package employing pseudopotentials and a plane-waves basis set. This program was first publicly released in 1993 and the last but one version was offered in 1996 (which is still available for free). In 1998, a new release called FHI98md was published. The code has been successfully applied in more than 1000 theoretical studies.
(Licence Details: Available for free)

FHI-aims (the "Fritz-Haber-Institute ab initio molecular simulations" package) is an efficient, accurate implementation of all-electron density functional theory and beyond based on numeric atom-centered orbital basis sets. Hierarchical basis sets for all elements are provided from fast "light" settings up to the meV-converged total energy limit (for ground state DFT). Beyond standard DFT-LDA and -GGA, the code supports (for cluster geometries) hybrid functionals, Hartree-Fock, and post-Hartree-Fock methods such as MP2 and RPA, as well as GW corrections for single (quasi-)particle states. For ground-state DFT, molecular and periodic systems are supported on equal footing, including structure relaxation and ab initio molecular dynamics. The code scales well with system size (up to thousands of atoms) and on massively parallel computer platforms up to thousands of CPUs (e.g., IBM's BlueGene). A description of the underlying algorithms can be found here:
Licence Details: FHI-aims is not public domain - if you are interested in this package please follow the directions at the project website.
ABINIT Software Project
ABINIT is a package whose main program allows one to find the total energy, charge density and electronic structure of systems made of electrons and nuclei (molecules and periodic solids) within Density Functional Theory (DFT), using pseudopotentials and a planewave basis. ABINIT also includes options to optimise the geometry according to the DFT forces and stresses, or to perform molecular dynamics simulation using these forces, or to generate dynamical matrices, Born effective charges, and dielectric tensors. Excited states can be computed within the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (for molecules, or within Many-Body Perturbation Theory (the GW approximation). In addition to the main ABINIT code, different utility programs are provided.
(Licence Details: ABINIT Version 3 is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence.)
Plane-Wave Self-Consistent Field is a set of programs for electronic structure calculations within Density-Functional Theory and Density-Functional Perturbation Theory, using a Plane-Wave basis set and pseudopotentials.
(Licence Details: PWscf is released under the GNU General Public License.)
Siesta (Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms) is both a method and its computer program implementation, to perform electronic structure calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of molecules and solids.
(Licence Details: Version 0.15 of Siesta is available to any member of the academic community upon request and upon argeement to certain terms and conditions)
CONQUEST is an O(N) density functional code, designed to perform accurate, ab initio calculations on large numbers of atoms. Using 512 nodes of a Cray T3E, it was announced at the PsiK2000 conference (August 2000) to be capable of calculations on 16, 384 atoms. A brief description of density functional theory can be found here, and a brief description of O(N) techniques, and CONQUEST in particular, can be found here.
(Licence Details: The code is still under development, but will be available for general scientific use when released.)
Linear-muffin-tin-orbital programs. (LMTO Electrons, LMTO Phonons, LMTO Magnons)
(Licence Details: Available after accepting a licence agreement)
The Augmented Spherical Wave method is based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation Density Functional Theory (DFT) and uses the Local Density Approximation (LDA), the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), the Muffin-Tin Approximation (MTA) and Atomic Sphere Approximation (ASA). It is an all electron method (core electrons fully included / full coverage of the periodic table / applicable to metals, semiconductors and insulators). It is characterized by a minimal basis set (atomic-like (s, p, d) basis functions / high computational speed / simple interpretation of results). It allows for scalar-relativistic calculations and spin-restricted and spin-polarized calculations and is well suited for both closed-packed and open crystal structures (automated sphere packing - generation of empty spheres, optimal atomic sphere radii).
(Licence Details: If you are interested in the ASW package please contact Volker Eyert - spamblocked email)
A project for ab initio atomistic simulations and visualization. The FLAPW-Method (Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave Method) is an all-electron method which within density functional theory is universally applicable to all atoms of the periodic table and to systems with compact as well as open structures. It is widely considered to be the most precise electronic structure method in solid state physics. Due to the all-electron nature of the method, magnetism is included rigorously and nuclear quantities e.g. isomer shift, hyperfine field, electric field gradient (EFG), and core level shift are calculated routinely. Also open systems such as surfaces, clusters or inorganic molecules represent no basic problem. The capability of calculating the forces exerted on the atoms within the LAPW method opens the gate to structure optimization and molecular dynamics and puts this method up on the same category as the widespread pseudopotential method, but able of treating systems pain-full or unattainable by the pseudopotential method.
(Licence Details: To access these files you need to get a username and password by emailing Stefan Blügel - spamblocked email)
DOD-Parallel Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics
Tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) provides an efficient method for calculating properties of materials. The advantage of TBMD over classical potential simulations is that TBMD explicitly incorporates the real electronic structure and bonding of the material, obtained by an interpolation from a database of first-principles results.
(Licence Details: All codes require registration)
The CAMPOS project is flexible, contains general modules written in Python and provides a uniform environment for setting up atomistic calculation and visualization that encapsulates interaction with atomistic simulation tools. This encapsulation separates code development in layers: people not interested in electronic-structure nitty-gritties do not have to deal with this at all, python modules deal with this based on minimal input. On the other hand, people interested in electronic-structure calculations may focus on the embedded electronic-structure code (DACAPO) and only have to worry about obeying a well defined input/output protocol with one Python module.
(Licence Details: Open source)
PsiMag Software Repository
The Locally-Self-Consistent Multiple-Scattering (LSMS) Code is a first-principles computer model that simulates the interactions between electrons and atoms in magnetic materials. LSMS can be used to perform studies that involve the interactions between large numbers of atoms (250 to 3000 atoms). LSMS is used to perform fundamental studies of the atomistic, electronic, and magnetic microstructure of metals and semiconductors. Such studies include the description of: complex, disordered states of magnetism, and microstructural defects in metals and semiconductors.
(Licence Details: It is planned for LSMS to be freely available under an OSI certified license/copyright similar to the Berkeley OpenBSD Copyright.)
OCTOPUS solves the time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation in a non-perturbative way allowing for the ab initio calculations on electron/ion dynamics in external electromagnetic fields of arbitrary intensity, shape and frequency. Its central part is the propagation of the TDKS orbitals in real time and real space. It is particularly geared to the calculation of nonlinear (and of course also linear) optical properties. It also allows for the classical motion of ions and it includes relativistic effects. The code currently works for finite systems. The implementation for systems periodic in one dimension and finite in the two other dimensions (i.e. polymers) is nearly completed. The implementation for 3D periodic solids and the calculation of transport properties are currently in progress.
(Licence Details: distributed under the GNU General Public Licence)
Quantum Monte Carlo program for highly accurate total energy calculations for finite and periodic systems.
The FPLO package is a full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis code to solve the Kohn-Sham equations on a regular lattice using the local spin density approximation (LSDA). The situation of a chemically disordered structure is covered by a CPA solver, relativistic effects can be treated in a related 4-component code, and the LSDA+U formalism is implemented.
(Licence Details: Licence needs to be signed and returned and a fee of EUR 400 paid)
The program package WIEN2k allows to perform electronic structure calculations of solids using density functional theory (DFT). It is based on the full-potential (linearized) augmented plane-wave ((L)APW) + local orbitals (lo) method, one among the most accurate schemes for band structure calculations. In DFT the local (spin) density approximation (LDA) or the improved version of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) can be used. WIEN2k is an all-electron scheme including relativistic effects and has many features.
(Licence Details: Fill in online request form and pay a licence fee of EUR 400 (academic) or EUR 4000 (commercial)
Atomistix ToolKit
Atomistix ToolKit (ATK) is a platform for modeling at the atomic scale. ATK enables users to combine and compare different calculation methods: density functional theory (DFT), semi-empirical tight binding methods and classical potentials. This flexibility makes ATK an efficient and powerful tool for calculating and understanding electrical, optical, mechanical, and many other properties of nanoscale systems. The graphical user interface called Virtual NanoLab (VNL) makes it simple to carry out the tasks. Experienced users can benefit from the Python programming interface to implement complex work-flows and perform advanced data analysis efficiently.
More info:
The CRYSTAL program computes the electronic structure of periodic systems within Hartree Fock, density functional or various hybrid approximations. The Bloch functions of the periodic systems are expanded as linear combinations of atom centred Gaussian functions. Powerful screening techniques are used to exploit real space locality. The code may be used to perform consistent studies of the physical, electronic and magnetic structure of molecules, polymers, surfaces and crystalline solids.
The program can automatically handle space symmetry (230 space groups, 80 two-sided plane groups, 99 rod groups, 45 point groups are available ). Point symmetries compatible with translation symmetry are provided for molecules.
Input tools allow the generation of a slab (2D system), or a cluster (0D system), from a 3D crystalline structure, the elastic distortion of the lattice or the creation of a supercell with a defect .
The program can perform Restricted Closed Shell, Restricted Open Shell, and Unrestricted calculations. All-electron and valence-only basis sets with effective core pseudo-potentials are allowed.
(Licence Details: Sign a licence agreement and pay licence fee of acadmic/non-profit/for-profit EUR 750/1800/5000)
BAND, which is part of the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package, is a full-potential LCAO DFT code for general periodicity: molecules, linear chains, surfaces, and solids. BAND uses Slater and numerical orbital basis sets, which can be all-electron. Relativistic effects are included through the accurate ZORA method (scalar and spin-orbit effects). BAND is an accurate code that can reliably deal with systems in the whole periodic table. BAND can calculate optical spectra using Time-Dependent DFT. Academic pricing information is available on
A graphical user interface for band structure calculations xband is a graphical user interface (GUI) that supplies a number of basic functionalities to facilitate the use of a band structure program. One of the most tedious step of a band structure calculation is usually setting up the input file. xband simplifies this by creating  a system file, that contains all information on the atomic configuration and geometry of a system. Various ways of visualisation are supplied to document or check the created atomic configuration that makes use of the program rasmol. The system file is independent of the program package used and can be stored and retrieved again later. Calling a band structure program package allows to set up specific input files using the information stored in a system file. In addition program execution can be prepared and initiated in various ways. The resulting output files can be printed, catenated or edited while data files can be further processed using the program plot to create xmgrace graphics files. Although xband has been developed primarily to support the use of the SPRKKR package of H. Ebert et al. (see Munich SPR-KKR band structure program package) it can easily be modified to support other packages as well.
xband can be obtained after registration ( free of charge via email.
Munich SPR-KKR band structure program package:
The SPRKKR-package allows to calculate the electronic structure of arbitrary three-dimensional periodic systems, including in particular systems with chemical disorder. The treatment of two dimensional periodic systems (e.g. surfaces) can be done by using an auxiliary system having three dimensional periodicity or by making use of the cluster approximation (for a more appropriate approach see: SPR-TB-KKR band structure program package) Electronic structure calculations can be done in a non-relativistic, scalar-relativistic as well as fully relativistic mode. In the scalar-relativistic mode paramagnetic as well as spin-polarised systems can be treated, including non-collinear spin structures and arbitrary spin spirals. In the fully relativistic mode, paramagnetic as well as spin-polarised systems with an arbitrary spin configuration can be dealt with. On the basis of the electronic structure calculation many different properties can be investigated by means of the SPRKKR-package, with a strong emphasise on response functions and spectroscopic properties including dichroic effects. These type of calculations are in general restricted to the fully relativistic mode.
The program is available to interested users under conditions described in the licence agreement form  that should be signed and sent via Fax or ordinary mail to H. Ebert.
A brief description of the planned application has been added to see whether the Munich SPR-KKR package is suitable or not.
SPR-TB-KKR band structure program package:
The SPR-TB-KKR program package is a collection of electronic structure programs that allows to deal with nearly any 3D- and 2D- systems making use of the screened or tight-binding (TB) KKR-formalism as developed and described by R. Zeller et al. ( Phys. Rev. B 52, 8807 (1995)). A separate program allows in addition to deal with commensurate 0D-subsystems embedded in a 3D- or 2D-host system.
The package originates from the TB-KKR package developed by the group of P.H. Dederichs; in particular B. Drittler, P. Mavropoulos, N. Papanikolaou, K. Wildberger and R. Zeller. The main features and functionalities of the Munich SPR-KKR-package, as for example the spin-polONETEP (Order-N Electronic Total Energy Package) is a linear-scaling code for quantum-mechanical calculations based on density-functional theory.arised relativistic mode, CPA alloy approach, non-collinear magnetism, relativistic transport and the LSDA+U mode, have been introduced by H. Ebert, J. Minar and V. Popescu in collaboration with P.H. Dederichs' group.
The program is available to interested users under conditions described in the licence agreement form. As application of the complex package  requires a certain amount of experience access is given only to experienced users. Applications for a licence should be sent via Fax or ordinary mail to H. Ebert  including the signed licence agreement formand a brief description of the planned investigations.
exciting is developer-friendly through a clean and fully documented programming style, a modern source-code management, a dynamical build system, and automated tests. At the same time it is user-friendly, comprising various tools to create and validate input files and to analyze results.
An all-electron full-potential linearised augmented-plane wave (FP-LAPW) code with many advanced features. Written originally at Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz as a milestone of the EXCITING EU Research and Training Network, the code is designed to be as simple as possible so that new developments in the field of density functional theory (DFT) can be added quickly and reliably. The code is freely available under the GNU General Public License.
ONETEP (Order-N Electronic Total Energy Package) is a linear-scaling code for quantum-mechanical calculations based on density-functional theory.
TITUS codes
Atomistic Simulation Centre at Queen's University Belfast have several electronic structure codes including LMTO code from M. van Schilfgaarde, A.T.Paxton, J. Klepeis and M. Methfessel and Full-potential program lmf from M. Methfessel, Mark van Schilfgaarde, and R. A. Casali.
PEtot code is a planewave pseudopotential DFT code for large system calculations. It uses both norm conserving and ultrasoft pseudopotentials. It deploys three levels of parallelizations:on planewave G-vector, on band index, and on k-points. It has several options for wavefunction solutions, including band-by-band, all-band conjugate gradient, and all band DIIS method. It can be scaled to thousands of processors. It can calculate both periodic systems and isolated systems (for Poission equation). It can be used to relax the atomic positions. It is written in Fortran 90 with MPI for communications. The source codes are available for download. A norm conserving pseudopotential library generated from J.L. Martins's program and an ultrasoft pseudopotential library generated from D. Vanderbilt's program are also included in the downloadable package.K.
BigDFT is a DFT massively parallel electronic structure code using a wavelet basis set. Wavelets form a real space basis set distributed on an adaptive mesh (two levels of resolution in our implementation).Thanks to our Poisson solver based on a Green function formalism, periodic systems, surfaces and isolated systems can be simulated with the proper boundary conditions. The code BigDFT is available in ABINIT but can also be downloaded in a standalone version. The Poisson solver can also be downloaded and used independently. The Poisson solver is integrated in ABINIToctopus and CP2K.
(Licence Details: BigDFT Version 1.3 is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence.)
The program PHON calculates force constant matrices and phonon frequencies in crystals. From the frequencies it also calculates various thermodynamic quantities, like the Helmholtz free energy, the entropy, the specific heat and the internal energy of the harmonic crystal. The procedure is based on the small displacement method, and can be used in combination with any program capable to calculate forces on the atoms of the crystal.
Yambo is a FORTRAN/C code for Many-Body calculations in solid state and molecular physics. Yambo relies on the Kohn-Sham wavefunctions generated by two DFT public codes: abinit, and PWscf. The code was originally developed in the Condensed Matter Theoretical Group of the Physics Department at the University of Rome "Tor Vergata" by Andrea Marini. Previous to its release under the GPL license, yambo was known as SELF.
JDFTx is a plane-wave density functional code designed for Joint Density Functional Theory (JDFT), a framework for ab initio calculations of electronic systems in contact with liquid environments. JDFTx evolved from an earlier in-house research code in the Arias research group at Cornell called DFT++, but at this point has been almost entirely rewritten in a modern object oriented framework taking advantage of C++11 for expressive code with advanced memory management, and CUDA for leveraging the computational power of GPUs. See [Compiling] for details on unlocking various features. Unlike most other electronic structure codes, JDFTx performs total energy minimization using analytically continued energy functionals implemented within the algebraic formulation described in the above references, rather than density-mixing SCF schemes. Hence our motto "Our SCF never diverges, because we don't do SCF". This might be advantageous for vanilla DFT calculations in some cases (try your problematic systems out!), but it is quite important for reliable convergence in the presence of liquids, particularly with charged systems.
Wannier90 calculates maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) from a set of Bloch energy bands that may in general be attached to or mixed with other bands. It works by minimising the total quadratic spread of the MLWFs in real space, but in the space of unitary matrices that describe rotations of the Bloch bands at each k-point. Wannier90 exploits the locality of MLWFs to compute quantities including band-structure, density of states, Fermi surfaces, Berry curvature, orbital magnetization, and quantum and Boltzmann transport at modest computational cost, as well as outputting MLWFs and associated matrix elements for visualisation and other post-processing purposes. The code is independent of the basis set used in the underlying electronic structure calculation to find the Bloch states. It is, therefore, relatively straightforward to interface it to any electronic structure code. Examples of existing interfaces include Quantum-EspressoVASPABINITWien2kFLEUR and SIESTA. Wannier90 is freely available under the GNU General Public License from
Virtual NanoLab is a graphical user interface that enables users to build geometries, set up calculations, read, and plot output results produced by Atomistix ToolKitVASP,ABINITQuantum-Espresso, etc. It has an atomic 3D builder with a large structure database and set of tools that enables users to build complex nanostructures easily.
More inXCrySDen is a crystalline and molecular structure visualisation program aiming at display of isosurfaces and contours, which can be superimposed on crystalline structures and interactively rotated and manipulated. It runs on GNU/Linux.
XCrySDen was written by Anton Kokalj, following a project of Mauro Causà. The project was initiated because Mauro Causà and Anton Kokalj felt a growing need for a simple visualization tool aimed at displaying the crystalline structures. Programming started in 1996 and the first implementation of the program was made available in 1999.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program (see file COPYING); if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
XCrySDen has been also ported to MAC OSX (requires X11) and Windows (requires CYGWIN).fo:

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Kashmir : A Political Game-1930-1960(Part-2):History, Conflict, India, Pakistan, Kashmiris, Separatist, Information War, Possible Solution

1 August: Mahatma Gandhi visits the Maharaja; impresses upon him the need to be prompt in deciding on the State's accession. The Gilgit Agency is transferred by the British to the Maharaja.
11 August: Maharaja dismisses Prime Minister Ram Chandra Kak and replaces him with the retired Major Janak Singh.
11–13 August: Partition violence erupts in Sialkot, driving the surviving Hindus and Sikhs to Jammu.
14–15 August: Independence and Partition of British India into India and Pakistan. Kashmir signs Standstill Agreement with Pakistan. India requests further discussions for a Standstill agreement.

18 August: In one of the worst train massacres of Partition, Lohars and 'Kashmiris' of Nizamabad kill all the Hindu and Sikh passengers of Wazirabad-Jammu train.
Kashmir: History (August 1947 ) :JAMMU ROITS IN 1947: The Reason 

The worst violence occurred in Rawalpindi division where serious rioting began during the first week of March. The raiders, some of whom were from the North West Frontier Province, but also included local Punjabis not only burned and looted many non-Muslim villages in the region but also looted and gutted ‘Murree hill stations’ which were used by British troops during the hot weather.
 A particular facture of the March violence was ‘the genocidal aspect’ of violence. There was a general agreement that these attacks on Hindus and Sikhs were ‘carefully planned and carried out’ and reportedly led by some retired Muslim army officers.
 According to an official estimate, by mid-March more than five thousand Hindus and Sikhs were killed in these raids, and more than fifty thousand took shelter in the hurriedly established camps of Wah Attock and Kala Rawalpindi. The gravity of growing tension can be gauged by a fact that the special armoured trucks and tanks were sent to Rawalpindi and  to defuse the situation. In the aftermath of the Rawalpindi killings, Hindus and Sikhs of the Punjab demanded the division of the province along with the division of India.
In such a climate of fear and uncertainty, by April 1947, non-Muslims from the violence in the Rawalpindi division were arriving in other parts of the Punjab and the Kashmir region, expecting to return after the violence ceased.
With in a week of the killings, ‘a large flock’ of the Hindus and Sikhs from Rawalpindi division started migrating to neighbouring Kashmir region. The embittered Sikh and Hindu refugees’ tales of violence raised animosities wherever they settled. They planned revenge and produced and circulated wildly inflammatory pamphlets and brochures. Their horrified tales of the Muslim perpetration circulated widespread and served as an occasion to launch a reign of terror on the Jammu Muslim population. Shortly flight and violence went hand in hand. Violence Jammu was increasingly locked into an all-India pattern, as killings in one part of the country were justified as retribution for violence in another part. Jammu’s Muslims were to pay a heavy price in August-October 1947 for the early disturbances in the West Punjab.
Pakistan made various efforts to persuade the Maharaja of Kashmir to join Pakistan. In July 1947, Mohammad Ali Jinnah is believed to have written to the Maharaja promising "every sort of favourable treatment," followed by Muslim League leaders lobbying with the Prime Minister of the Kashmir State. Faced with the Maharaja's indecision, the Muslim League agents clandestinely worked in Poonch to encourage the local Muslims to revolt Later in September.
Pakistan made various efforts to persuade the Maharaja of Kashmir to join Pakistan. In July 1947, Mohammad Ali Jinnah is believed to have written to the Maharaja promising "every sort of favourable treatment," followed by Muslim League leaders lobbying with the Prime Minister of the Kashmir State. Faced with the Maharaja's indecision, the Muslim League agents clandestinely worked in Poonch to encourage the local Muslims to revolt Later in September.
20 August: Pakistan Army formulates `Operation Gulmarg' to organise a tribal invasion of Kashmir.
23 August: Rebels under the command of Sardar Abdul Qayyum fire on the State Forces at Bagh
Kashmir: History (September 1947 ) 

Before Partition, he was instrumental in massacring fellow Pashtuns at the behest of the British Raj in the 1937-38 operation in Pashtun Tribal areas. During that time, he built up his networks within the local tribes, particularly with the Mehsuds of South Waziristan – a seed that would be used for a deadly harvest later. Just months after Partition, he was charged with leading the “Jihad” in Kashmir – a tragic operation that saw an indiscriminate and brutal massacre of Kashmir’s indigenous Muslim and Hindu partition. In 1948, the same General Akbar lead the annexation of the State of Kalat that became Balochistan.
At the time of Independence, Akbar Khan was a member of the sub-committee involved in partitioning the armed forces between India and Pakistan. Less than two months after Independence, fighting started in Kashmir, the Indian Army landed in Srinagar and confronted the Pathan tribesmen who were advancing towards the valley. Akbar Khan, who was then a Brigadier, assumed command of the regulars and irregulars fighting against the Indian forces and was given the code name “General Tariq”.
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan was the first prime minister and a founding    father of Pakistan. It has been alleged that the Afghan and US governments were involved in his assassination, although this claim has not merited any substantial evidence.

Liaquat Ali Khan was the one to bring for the first time religion into politics. From 1947 until 1956,  Pakistan as referred to as the Dominion of Pakistan. After the death of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, His alliance with the mullahs produced the ‘Objectives Resolution’, which declared Pakistan to be an ‘Islamic state' and It became Islamic republic of Pakistan. Common perception holds Zia or Bhutto responsible for mixing religion and politics, but it was Liaquat Ali Khan under whose leadership mullahs were given entry into politics and the right to decide the fate of the nation.
4 September: Henry Lawrence Scott informs the Maharaja that 400 armed Muslims infiltrated from Kahuta into the state to terrorize the Hindu and Sikh minorities. On the same day, Civil & Military Gazette reported that there was an `uprising' in the Poonch area.
9 September: Pakistan cuts off supplies of petrol, sugar, salt and kerosene and stops trade in timber, fruits, fur and carpets in violation of the standstill agreement.
12 September: Liaquat Ali Khan approves the plan for "Armed Revolt inside Kashmir" prepared by Colonel Akbar Khan and another plan prepared by Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan. Khurshid Anwar of Muslim League National Guard is dispatched to the Frontier to mobilise the tribals for an attack.
13 September: Pakistan accepts the accession of the Junagadh State.
13-18 September: Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan visits Kashmir and accepts the Maharaja's invitation to be the Prime Minister of the state.

Apart from that, the Government of Pakistan sent a junior army officer ASB Shah to seek accession of the State to Pakistan. Justice Muhammad Yusuf Saraf in his book commented:
‘A junior officer ……………………… To have expected of him to deliver the goods in a situation which was being handled on the Indian side by intellectual giants like Mehr Chand Mahajan, VP Menon and Gopal Swami Ayyanger, was to have well asked for the moon.’
Major Shah was a son – in – law of one of the important Secretaries of the Pakistan Government. He reached Srinagar and started negotiations in a typical military style. Mehr Chand Mahjan in his book, ‘Looking Back’ noted that, Major Shah:
‘Was in Srinagar with a whip in one hand and a letter of accession in the other. He had been trying to persuade General Janak Singh and Mr Batra to advise the Maharaja to accede to Pakistan………….He was keen to have assurance of State’s accession to Pakistan or in alternative, a negative assurance that I would not advise the Maharajah to accede to India. I told him that I could not give any positive reply without discussing the matter with my Cabinet and the leading men of the State and then with His Highness and that it would take some time. But he was not prepared to wait. When I found out that he had come there almost with an ultimatum, I said, “If you raise the blockade and allow food, clothes and petrol to enter the State I will discuss the matter in detail with you”. He agreed to persuade Mr Jinnah to remove the blockade and sent a telegram to him at Lahore, but got no favourable reply. He then saw me again and said, “Mr Jinnah invites you to Lahore. Go there and have a talk with him”.
Mahjan was an experienced Statesman and fully understood why he was invited to Lahore. In any case, he had no desire to accede to Pakistan; he further wrote: ‘I was in no mood to present myself at Mr Jinnah’s Darbar, fall in Pakistani hands and meet my doom. I declined the invitation, as the object was to coerce me in to securing the State’s accession to Pakistan. When Major Shah failed in his efforts, he sweetly departed, but with a parting shot, declaring that His Highness would soon come to grief and realise his folly. I retorted bluntly that the result of such action on the part of Pakistan would be to throw the State in the lap of India, no matter what the result. I assured him that we could not be coerced by such tactics to sign an agreement of accession of the State to Pakistan.’
Mahjan was an experienced Statesman and fully understood why he was invited to Lahore. In any case, he had no desire to accede to Pakistan; he further wrote: ‘I was in no mood to present myself at Mr Jinnah’s Darbar, fall in Pakistani hands and meet my doom. I declined the invitation, as the object was to coerce me in to securing the State’s accession to Pakistan. When Major Shah failed in his efforts, he sweetly departed, but with a parting shot, declaring that His Highness would soon come to grief and realise his folly. I retorted bluntly that the result of such action on the part of Pakistan would be to throw the State in the lap of India, no matter what the result. I assured him that we could not be coerced by such tactics to sign an agreement of accession of the State to Pakistan.’

Kashmir: History (October  1947
Tribal invasion of Kashmir started on 22 October 1947, an outcome of collaboration between Pakistan army, Pakistan Muslim League and Muslim Conference. Muslim Conference not only invited the tribal attack but also actively joined the raiders. Reward for this collaboration was that they were appointed rulers of this region known as Pakistan occupied Kashmir; they and their political masters in Pakistan kept on feeding lies to people to strengthen the impression that the ‘tribesmen’ were ‘liberators’, and they came to Kashmir to fulfil their religious obligation. The Tribal Invasion was a contentious and significant action, because of its serious consequences; and because it clearly violated the Standstill Agreement concluded between Pakistan and the Ruler of Jammu and Kashmir. 
A large number of tribals from Pakistan attacked Kashmir under the code name “Operation Gulmarg” to seize Kashmir. The invading tribals started moving along Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road on 22 October 1947 with Pakistani army men in plain clothes. Muzaffarabad fell on 24 October 1947. They reached and captured Baramulla on 25 October. There they stayed for several days looting, raping, killing, burning, plundering and desecrating and vandalising shrines and temples instead of moving on to Srinagar 50 km away and capture its airfield which was not defended at all.
They raped and killed European nuns (only one survived) at Baramulla’s St. Joseph convent and Christian nurses at the missionary hospital. This savage orgy of loot, rape, murder and abduction of girls continued for several days. Baramulla suffered this savage orgy but saved the rest of Kashmir because the airplanes carrying the Indian troops airlifted from Delhi on the morning of 27 October could land at Srinagar airfield as the invaders were still at Baramulla.
While discussing about brutalities of the Tribal attack, Khawaja Abdul Samad said: ‘Hindus and Muslims were taking refuge in separate areas. Most of the properties that belonged to Hindus had been burnt down. Many Hindus and Sikhs had been mercilessly slaughtered and most of their bodies were still lying in their homes or on the streets. In the past two days, the tribesmen had dragged numerous bodies and thrown them into the river………..Their attack had totally devastated Muzaffarabad. The homes of Hindus and Muslims were looted, shops were plundered and all the stock loaded onto trucks. Places of worship were not spared; they entered and took whatever they considered to be of value. They tore down mandirs and desecrated masjids. In their lustful search for gold, silver and rupees they even used digging equipment to search beneath the stone floors of shops. Whatever they could find would be amassed in a collective place where tribal leaders would supervise the whole process. From here, everything would be loaded onto trucks and sent on their way to the North West Frontier Province. In Muzaffarabad and its surroundings, no Muslim home was spared from this tribal bounty-hunt.’ (Tribesmen steal from a Masjid – Mosque.)
Khawaja Abdul Samad, while discussing the loot and plunder carried out by the tribesmen who apparently came to Jammu and Kashmir for the purpose of ‘Jihad’ and to ‘liberate’ people of Jammu and Kashmir, explained how they even looted materials hidden in a Masjid.
Bourke-White debunked the myths that arms for the invasion came from tribesmen themselves, some of whom owned arms factories. She writes, “I photographed one of the larger of these munition works, belonging to the Afridi tribe. It was a rock-bound shack where five men worked. Since it took one man a month to make a rifle, it is doubtful whether all the shacks on the North-West Frontier would account for more than a fraction of the equipment with which the tribesmen poured into Kashmir during the fall of ’47. Certainly these miniature ballistics establishment would hardly explain the mortars, other heavy modern weapons, and the two aeroplanes with which the invaders were equipped”.
In an eyewitness account about the delivery of arms she writes, “In Pakistan towns close to the border, arms were handed out before daylight to tribesmen directly from the front steps of the Muslim League headquarters”.
She makes revelations e.g. ‘From Pakistan’s Capital a train loaded with medical supplies and volunteer personnel left every Wednesday morning for the Kashmir frontier, “some of the ‘Pakistan occupied Kashmir’ soldiers, taken as PoWs by the Indian army, were found to have pay books of the Pakistan Army in their pockets’.
While Bourke-White was still in Abottabad she had the opportunity to meet the nuns from St. Joseph Hospital in Baramulla who survived the carnage. They had escaped over the border at dawn. A nurse gave her a detailed description of how raiders ransacked the babies’ ward on the Convent grounds. She said, “the tribesmen began smashing up X-Ray equipment, throwing medicine bottles to the ground, ripping the statuettes of saints out of the chapel, and shooting up the place generally. Two patients were killed: an Englishman and his wife who were vacationing at the mission were murdered; and two nuns were shot”.
Maharaja's troops, heavily outnumbered and outgunned, had no chance of withstanding the attack. The Maharaja made an urgent plea to Delhi for military assistance. Upon the Governor General Lord Mountbatten's insistence, India required the Maharaja to accede before it could send troops. Accordingly, the Maharaja signed an instrument of accession on 26 October 1947, which was accepted by the Governor General the next day. While the Government of India accepted the accession, it added the provision that it would be submitted to a "reference to the people" after the state is cleared of the invaders, since "only the people, not the Maharaja, could decide where Kashmiris wanted to live." It was a provisional accession. National Conference, the largest political party in the State and headed by Sheikh Abdullah, endorsed the accession. In the words of the National Conference leader Syed Mir Qasim, India had the "legal" as well as "moral" justification to send in the army through the Maharaja's accession and the people's support of it.

1 November 1947, Mountbatten flew to Lahore for a conference with Jinnah, proposing that, in all the princely States where the ruler did not accede to a Dominion corresponding to the majority population (which would have included Junagadh, Hyderabad as well Kashmir), the accession should be decided by an `impartial reference to the will of the people'. Jinnah rejected the offer. According to A. G. Noorani Jinnah ended up squandering his leverage.
According to Jinnah, India acquired the accession through "fraud and violence." A plebiscite was unnecessary and states should accede according to their majority population. He was willing to urge Junagadh to accede to India in return for Kashmir. For a plebiscite, Jinnah demanded simultaneous troop withdrawal for he felt that 'the average Muslim would never have the courage to vote for Pakistan' in the presence of Indian troops and with Sheikh Abdullah in power. When Mountbatten countered that the plebiscite could be conducted by the United Nations, Jinnah, hoping that the invasion would succeed and Pakistan might lose a plebiscite, again rejected the proposal, stating that the Governors Generals should conduct it instead. Mountbatten noted that it was untenable given his constitutional position and India did not accept Jinnah's demand of removing Sheikh Abdullah.

During the initial stages of the Kashmir conflict, Sardar Patel, India’s deputy prime minister, offered Pakistan to exchange Hyderabad Deccan for Kashmir. This fact is corroborated by a host of impeccable sources including Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Chaudhri Muhammad Ali, Liaquat’s close confidant. The latter has described how this offer was made by the Indians in his masterly biography, The Emergence of Pakistan. Hyderabad Deccan was a gone case from day one. It was surrounded on all sides by the Indians and had a Hindu majority. Kashmir, on the other hand, was Pakistan’s jugular vein and we should have aimed to get it by hook or crook.
Kashmir: History (November 1947 )
 5–6 November: Convoys of Muslim refugees going to West Punjab attacked by armed bands supported by State troops. Very few survive. 6 November is remembered as a remembrance day in Pakistan and Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
9 November: Another convoy of Muslim refugees is guarded by Indian troops, who repel the attackers killing 150 of them. No furher attacks on covoys reported after this incident.Indian Army killed attackers with out any religious bias and saved Muslims refugees going to Pakistan.
16 November: Pakistan's Political Agent Khan Mohammad Alam Khan arrives in Gilgit and takes over the administration. The provisional government is dismissed.
25 November: Massacre of 20,000 Hindus and Sikhs taking shelter at Mirpur in what is now pakistan occupied Kashmir. The day is remembered as the Mirpur day in Indian-administered Jammu.

Hardly anybody outside Baramulla has heard of Mohd Maqbool Sherwanior how he died and the decisive role he played in saving Srinagar from falling to Pakistani raiders Kabilis, who attacked Kashmir in the year of Independence.
Sherwani was a gutsy boy of 19 who single-handedly thwarted the advance of thousands of raiders (Kabailis) from Baramulla, thereby giving valuable time to the Indian Army to land in Srinagar and prevent an ignominious defeat.
He went around on his bike telling the Kabailis, who stormed Baramulla on October 22, 1947, not to advance towards Srinagar as the Indian Army had reached the outskirts of Baramulla.
His bluff worked. The enemy froze in its tracks for four days. By then, 1st Sikh had landed in Srinagar, on October 27,  now celebrated as Infantry Day. When the Kabailis came to know of Sherwani’s game plan, they shot him dead and crucified him. 

Kashmir: History (December 1947 )

8 December: Meeting between Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan, along with ministers and Lord Mountbatten. Montbatten proposes that the UN be invited to break the deadlock.

15-20 December: Indian forces losing ground. Nehru contemplates escalating the war across the international border, but decides against it.
24 December: Indian forces evicted from Jhangar by rebels. However, they repel the attack on Naushera by 27 December. India reinforces Kashmir by an additional brigade.
28 December: Mountbatten urges Nehru "to stop the fighting and to stop it as soon as possible."
31 December: India refers the Kashmir problem to the UN Security Council. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 continues into 1948.
Kashmir: History (January- April 1948 )
 1 January: UN Security Council considers the Kashmir problem.
20 January: UN Security Council passes Resolution 39 announcing a 3-member Commission to investigate the Kashmir dispute. However this does not come into fruition till May 1948.
11 February: Gilgit rebels attack Skardu. The State forces at Skardu defend it for almost six months hence. No reinforncements possible due to the Zoji La pass being closed under winter snows. The Ladakhis appeal to Nehru for help.
7 March: A small group of Indian troops brave through the Zoji La pass, reaching Leh with guns and ammunition to raise a local volunteer force.
21 April: UN Security Council passes Resolution 47 calling for a three-step process for the resolution of the dispute: Pakistani withdrawal of its nationals, India to reduce its troops to minimum level, and arrangements for a plebiscite. The UN Commisssion proposed in January is enlarged to five members under the name of UNCIP. Both India and Pakistan reject the resolution but promise to work with the Commission.
Kashmir: History (July-Novenber 1948)
 5 July: UNCIP arrives in the subcontinent. In Karachi, it was told by Pakistan that three brigades of regular Pakistan Army were oprerating in Kashmir, a "bombshell" of news according to Josef Korbel. In Delhi, the Commission was told that it needed to recognize the aggression by Pakistan. The Commission broaches the possibility of partition, considered favourably by India but rejected by Pakistan.
6 July: In response to an appeal by the UNCIP, India limits operations to clearing the land route to Leh and relieving Poonch.
13 August: UNCIP adopts its first resolution on Kashmir, fine-tuning the April resolution of the Security Council to take into account objections by both India and Pakistan. Pakistan's aggression is indirectly acknowledged by asking for its withdrawal as the first step. The resolution is accepted by India, but effectively rejected by Pakistan.
1 November : Zoji La pass recaptured by India.
15 November: Dras recaptured.
20 November: Two Indian columns link up at Poonch, relieving the pressure on the garrison.
23 November: Kargil recaptured.
The UNCIP made three visits to the subcontinent between 1948 and 1949, trying to find a solution agreeable to both India and Pakistan. It reported to the Security Council in August 1948 that "the presence of troops of Pakistan" inside Kashmir represented a "material change" in the situation. A two-part process was proposed for the withdrawal of forces. In the first part, Pakistan was to withdraw its forces as well as other Pakistani nationals from the state. In the second part, "when the Commission shall have notified the Government of India" that Pakistani withdrawal has been completed, India was to withdraw the bulk of its forces. After both the withdrawals were completed, a plebiscite would be held. The resolution was accepted by India but effectively rejected by Pakistan.
In short, India required an asymmetric treatment of the two countries in the withdrawal arrangements, regarding Pakistan as an `aggressor', whereas Pakistan insisted on parity. The UN mediators tended towards parity, which was not to India's satisfaction. In the end, no withdrawal was ever carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first, and Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterwards. No agreement could be reached between the two countries on the process of demilitarisation.

Declassified British papers indicate that Britain and US had let their Cold War calculations influence their policy in the UN, disregarding the merits of the case.
17 October: the Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the Constitution, ensuring a special status and internal autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir, with Indian jurisdiction in Kashmir limited to the three areas agreed in the IOA, namely, defence, foreign affairs and communications.
Kashmir: History (1950)
 During the 1950s, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru held talks with Pakistan's Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra to sort out the plebiscite issue in Kashmir . The discussions between the two suggest that Nehru had even agreed to appoint a Plebiscite Administrator by April 1954. However, Pakistan then joined the CENTO alliance and India used this as a reason to reject the plebiscite and to cancel the talks.
However, in May 1955 Nehru held talks with Muhammad Ali Bogra during which he underlined his willingness to solve the Kashmir issue on the basis of a Partition of the state along the cease fire line.
Nehru's cable to Krishna Menon in 1957 suggests that he favored a 'readjustment' of the ceasefire line on strategic and geographic grounds. From the 1950s, India became lukewarm to the idea of a plebiscite and instead adopted the view that the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, which was elected in 1951, had ratified the state's accession to India therefore it was unnecessary to further determine the wishes of the Kashmiri people.
Kashmir: History (1951-1953
1951: Elections for the Constituent Assembly, with 75 seats allocated for the Indian administered part of Kashmir and 25 seats left reserved for the Pakistan administered part. National Conference wins all 75 seats in a rigged election. The UN passes a resolution to the effect that such elections do not substitute a plebiscite, because a plebiscite offers the option of choosing between India and Pakistan. Sheikh Abdullah wins, mostly unopposed.
1947-1952: Sheikh Abdullah drifts from a position of endorsing accession to India in 1947 to insisting on the self-determination of Kashmiris in 1952. In July 1952, he signs Delhi Agreement with the Central government on Centre-State relationship, providing for autonomy of the State within India and of regions within the State.
1953: In 1953, the governments of India and Pakistan agree to appoint a Plebiscite Administrator by the end of April 1954. Abdullah procrastinates in confirming the accession of Kashmir to India. In June 1953, Abdullah heads a subcommittee of the National Conference which recommends five options for the state's future, all involving a plebiscite or independence. The recommendations are opposed by three of Abdullah's five-member cabinet, including the Deputy Prime Minister Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. In August 1953, Abdullah is dismissed by Sadr-i-Riyasat Karan Singh and arrested. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed is appointed as the Prime Minister.
Kashmir: Two-Nation Theory
The British Raj in India consisted of two units, namely British India and Princely India; whereas the former was directly ruled, the latter enjoyed semi autonomous status. The Rulers of the Princely States were allies of the British and under different treaties they accepted the British Paramountcy.
Many Muslims of Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir are manipulated that because Pakistan was created in name of religion; and because Jammu and Kashmir was a majority Muslim State, therefore, it should have become part of Pakistan. That is not true; as Two Nations Theory did not apply to the Princely States, including the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Two Nations theory, ………..was only applicable to the British India. The Rulers of Princely States had a choice to accede to either India, accede to Pakistan or negotiate some new terms with India or Pakistan.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah was a constitutional expert. He knew the Two Nations Theory did not apply to the Princely States; and that is why before the establishment of Pakistan he never asked Kashmir.
When people asked Mohammed Ali Jinnah a question about future of Kashmir and other Princely States, he asserted:
“Constitutionally and legally, the Indian States will be independent sovereign states on the termination of Paramountcy and they will be free to decide for themselves to adopt any course they like. It is open to them to join the Hindustan Constituent Assembly, the Pakistan Constituent Assembly, or decide to remain independent. In the last case, they enter into such arrangements or relationship with Hindustan or Pakistan as they may choose.”
Mohammed Ali Jinnah demonstrated this policy by accepting accession of Junagarrh’s to Pakistan, even though this State had overwhelming non Muslim majority; and if the Two Nations Theory was applicable to the Princely States then this State would have automatically become part of India. Similarly, on question of Hyderabad, Mohammed Ali Jinnah supported Ruler of this State’s right to remain independent, even though this State also had overwhelming non Muslim majority; and if the Two Nations Theory was applicable to the Princely States then Hyderabad also should have automatically joined India.
Apart from that Governor General of India Lord Louis Mountbatten in his address to a Special full meeting of the Chamber of Princes on July 25 1947, said:
“Now, the Indian Independence Act releases the States from all their obligations to the Crown. The States will have complete freedom- technically and legally they become independent.”ir’s inclusion in Pakistan.